Adhesion of platelets to an injured vessel wall and platelet activation are critical events in the formation of a thrombus. Of the agonists involved in platelet activation, thrombin, collagen, and vWF are known to induce in vitro calcium mobilization in platelets. Using a calcium-sensitive fluorochrome and digital multichannel intravital microscopy to image unstimulated and stimulated platelets, calcium mobilization was monitored as a reporter of platelet activation (as distinct from platelet accumulation) during thrombus formation in live mice. In the absence of vWF, platelet activation was normal, but platelet adherence and aggregation were attenuated during thrombus formation following laser-induced injury in the cremaster muscle microcirculation. In WT mice treated with lepirudin, platelet activation was blocked, and platelet adherence and aggregation were inhibited. The kinetics of platelet activation and platelet accumulation were similar in FcRγ–/– mice lacking glycoprotein VI (GPVI), GPVI-depleted mice, and WT mice. Our results indicate that the tissue factor–mediated pathway of thrombin generation, but not the collagen-induced GPVI-mediated pathway, is the major pathway leading to platelet activation after laser-induced injury under the conditions employed. In the tissue factor–mediated pathway, vWF plays a role in platelet accumulation during thrombus formation but is not required for platelet activation in vivo.
Christophe Dubois, Laurence Panicot-Dubois, Justin F. Gainor, Barbara C. Furie, Bruce Furie
The regulation of HSC proliferation and engraftment of the BM is an important but poorly understood process, particularly during ontogeny. Here we show that in mice, all HSCs are cycling until 3 weeks after birth. Then, within 1 week, most became quiescent. Prior to 4 weeks of age, the proliferating HSCs with long-term multilineage repopulating activity displayed an engraftment defect when transiting S/G2/M. During these cell cycle phases, their expression of CXC chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12; also referred to as stromal cell–derived factor 1 [SDF-1]) transiently increased. The defective engrafting activity of HSCs in S/G2/M was reversed when cells were allowed to progress into G1 prior to injection or when the hosts (but not the cells) were pretreated with a CXCL12 antagonist. Interestingly, the enhancing effect of CXCL12 antagonist pretreatment was exclusive to transplants of long-term multilineage repopulating HSCs in S/G2/M. These results demonstrate what we believe to be a new HSC regulatory checkpoint during development. They also suggest an ability of HSCs to express CXCL12 in a fashion that changes with cell cycle progression and is associated with a defective engraftment that can be overcome by in vivo administration of a CXCL12 antagonist.
Michelle B. Bowie, Kristen D. McKnight, David G. Kent, Lindsay McCaffrey, Pamela A. Hoodless, Connie J. Eaves
Inhibitory immune response to exogenously infused factor VIII (FVIII) is a major complication in the treatment of hemophilia A. Generation of such inhibitors has the potential to disrupt gene therapy for hemophilia A. We explore what we believe to be a novel approach to overcome this shortcoming. Human B-domain–deleted FVIII (hBDDFVIII) was expressed under the control of the platelet-specific αIIb promoter in platelets of hemophilic (FVIIInull) mice to create 2bF8trans mice. The FVIII transgene product was stored in platelets and released at the site of platelet activation. In spite of the lack of FVIII in the plasma of 2bF8trans mice, the bleeding phenotype of FVIIInull mice was corrected. More importantly, the bleeding phenotype was corrected in the presence of high inhibitory antibody titers introduced into the mice by infusion or by spleen cell transfer from recombinant hBDDFVIII–immunized mice. Our results demonstrate that this approach to the targeted expression of FVIII in platelets has the potential to correct hemophilia A, even in the presence of inhibitory immune responses to infused FVIII.
Qizhen Shi, David A. Wilcox, Scot A. Fahs, Hartmut Weiler, Clive W. Wells, Brian C. Cooley, Drashti Desai, Patricia A. Morateck, Jack Gorski, Robert R. Montgomery
Caveolae in endothelial cells have been implicated as plasma membrane microdomains that sense or transduce hemodynamic changes into biochemical signals that regulate vascular function. Therefore we compared long- and short-term flow-mediated mechanotransduction in vessels from WT mice, caveolin-1 knockout (Cav-1 KO) mice, and Cav-1 KO mice reconstituted with a transgene expressing Cav-1 specifically in endothelial cells (Cav-1 RC mice). Arterial remodeling during chronic changes in flow and shear stress were initially examined in these mice. Ligation of the left external carotid for 14 days to lower blood flow in the common carotid artery reduced the lumen diameter of carotid arteries from WT and Cav-1 RC mice. In Cav-1 KO mice, the decrease in blood flow did not reduce the lumen diameter but paradoxically increased wall thickness and cellular proliferation. In addition, in isolated pressurized carotid arteries, flow-mediated dilation was markedly reduced in Cav-1 KO arteries compared with those of WT mice. This impairment in response to flow was rescued by reconstituting Cav-1 into the endothelium. In conclusion, these results showed that endothelial Cav-1 and caveolae are necessary for both rapid and long-term mechanotransduction in intact blood vessels.
Jun Yu, Sonia Bergaya, Takahisa Murata, Ilkay F. Alp, Michael P. Bauer, Michelle I. Lin, Marek Drab, Teymuras V. Kurzchalia, Radu V. Stan, William C. Sessa
Transgenic sickle mice expressing βS hemoglobin have activated vascular endothelium that exhibits enhanced expression of NF-κB and adhesion molecules that promote vascular stasis in sickle, but not in normal, mice in response to hypoxia/reoxygenation. Sickle mice hemolyze rbcs in vivo as demonstrated by increased reticulocyte counts, plasma hemoglobin and bilirubin, and reduced plasma haptoglobin. The heme content is elevated in sickle organs, which promotes vascular inflammation and heme oxygenase-1 expression. Treatment of sickle mice with hemin further increases heme oxygenase-1 expression and inhibits hypoxia/reoxygenation–induced stasis, leukocyte-endothelium interactions, and NF-κB, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1 expression. Heme oxygenase inhibition by tin protoporphyrin exacerbates stasis in sickle mice. Furthermore, treatment of sickle mice with the heme oxygenase enzymatic product carbon monoxide or biliverdin inhibits stasis and NF-κB, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1 expression. Local administration of heme oxygenase-1 adenovirus to subcutaneous skin increases heme oxygenase-1 and inhibits hypoxia/reoxygenation–induced stasis in the skin of sickle mice. Heme oxygenase-1 plays a vital role in the inhibition of vaso-occlusion in transgenic sickle mice.
John D. Belcher, Hemachandra Mahaseth, Thomas E. Welch, Leo E. Otterbein, Robert P. Hebbel,, Gregory M. Vercellotti
Anemia due to chronic disease or chemotherapy often is ameliorated by erythropoietin (Epo). Present studies reveal that, unlike steady-state erythropoiesis, erythropoiesis during anemia depends sharply on an Epo receptor–phosphotyrosine-343–Stat5 signaling axis. In mice expressing a phosphotyrosine-null (PY-null) Epo receptor allele (EpoR-HM), severe and persistent anemia was induced by hemolysis or 5-fluorouracil. In short-term transplantation experiments, donor EpoR-HM bone marrow cells also failed to efficiently repopulate the erythroid compartment. In each context, stress erythropoiesis was rescued to WT levels upon the selective restoration of an EpoR PY343 Stat5-binding site (EpoR-H allele). As studied using a unique primary culture system, EpoR-HM erythroblasts exhibited marked stage-specific losses in Epo-dependent growth and survival. EpoR-H PY343 signals restored efficient erythroblast expansion, and the selective Epo induction of the Stat5 target genes proviral integration site-1 (Pim-1) and oncostatin-M. Bcl2-like 1 (Bcl-x), in contrast, was not significantly induced via WT-EpoR, EpoR-HM, or EpoR-H alleles. In Kit+CD71+ erythroblasts, EpoR-PY343 signals furthermore enhanced SCF growth effects, and SCF modulation of Pim-1 kinase and oncostatin-M expression. In maturing Kit–CD71+ erythroblasts, oncostatin-M exerted antiapoptotic effects that likewise depended on EpoR PY343–mediated events. Stress erythropoiesis, therefore, requires stage-specific EpoR-PY343-Stat5 signals, some of which selectively bolster SCF and oncostatin-M action.
Madhu P. Menon, Vinit Karur, Olga Bogacheva, Oleg Bogachev, Bethany Cuetara, Don M. Wojchowski
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a life-threatening illness caused by deficiency of the vWF-cleaving protease ADAMTS13. Here we show that ADAMTS13-deficient mice are viable and exhibit normal survival, although vWF-mediated platelet-endothelial interactions are significantly prolonged. Introduction of the genetic background CASA/Rk (a mouse strain with elevated plasma vWF) resulted in the appearance of spontaneous thrombocytopenia in a subset of ADAMTS13-deficient mice and significantly decreased survival. Challenge of these mice with shigatoxin (derived from bacterial pathogens associated with the related human disease hemolytic uremic syndrome) resulted in a striking syndrome closely resembling human TTP. Surprisingly, no correlation was observed between plasma vWF level and severity of TTP, implying the existence of TTP-modifying genes distinct from vWF. These data suggest that microbe-derived toxins (or possibly other sources of endothelial injury), together with additional genetic susceptibility factors, are required to trigger TTP in the setting of ADAMTS13 deficiency.
David G. Motto, Anil K. Chauhan, Guojing Zhu, Jonathon Homeister, Colin B. Lamb, Karl C. Desch, Weirui Zhang, Han-Mou Tsai, Denisa D. Wagner, David Ginsburg
The myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative diseases (MDS/MPDs) are a heterogeneous group of myeloid neoplasms that share characteristics with chronic myeloproliferative diseases and myelodysplastic syndromes. The broad spectrum of clinical manifestations makes MDS/MPDs extremely difficult to diagnose and treat, with a median survival time of 1–5 years. No single gene defect has been firmly associated with MDS/MPDs, and no animal models have been developed for these diseases. The association of deletions on chromosome 20q with myeloid malignancies suggests the presence of unidentified tumor suppressor genes in this region. Here we show that the recently identified death inducer–obliterator (Dido) gene gives rise to at least 3 polypeptides (Dido1, Dido2, and Dido3) through alternative splicing, and we map the human gene to the long arm of chromosome 20. We found that targeting of murine Dido caused a transplantable disease whose symptoms and signs suggested MDS/MPDs. Furthermore, 100% of human MDS/MPD patients analyzed showed Dido expression abnormalities, which we also found in other myeloid but not lymphoid neoplasms or in healthy donors. Our findings suggest that Dido might be one of the tumor suppressor genes at chromosome 20q and that the Dido-targeted mouse may be a suitable model for studying MDS/MPD diseases and testing new approaches to their diagnosis and treatment.
Agnes Fütterer, Miguel R. Campanero, Esther Leonardo, Luis M. Criado, Juana M. Flores, Jesús M. Hernández, Jesús F. San Miguel, Carlos Martínez-A
Hypoxic vasodilation is a fundamental, highly conserved physiological response that requires oxygen and/or pH sensing coupled to vasodilation. While this process was first characterized more than 80 years ago, the precise identity and mechanism of the oxygen sensor and mediators of vasodilation remain uncertain. In support of a possible role for hemoglobin (Hb) as a sensor and effector of hypoxic vasodilation, here we show biochemical evidence that Hb exhibits enzymatic behavior as a nitrite reductase, with maximal NO generation rates occurring near the oxy-to-deoxy (R-to-T) allosteric structural transition of the protein. The observed rate of nitrite reduction by Hb deviates from second-order kinetics, and sigmoidal reaction progress is determined by a balance between 2 opposing chemistries of the heme in the R (oxygenated conformation) and T (deoxygenated conformation) allosteric quaternary structures of the Hb tetramer — the greater reductive potential of deoxyheme in the R state tetramer and the number of unligated deoxyheme sites necessary for nitrite binding, which are more plentiful in the T state tetramer. These opposing chemistries result in a maximal nitrite reduction rate when Hb is 40–60% saturated with oxygen (near the Hb P50), an apparent ideal set point for hypoxia-responsive NO generation. These data suggest that the oxygen sensor for hypoxic vasodilation is determined by Hb oxygen saturation and quaternary structure and that the nitrite reductase activity of Hb generates NO gas under allosteric and pH control.
Zhi Huang, Sruti Shiva, Daniel B. Kim-Shapiro, Rakesh P. Patel, Lorna A. Ringwood, Cynthia E. Irby, Kris T. Huang, Chien Ho, Neil Hogg, Alan N. Schechter, Mark T. Gladwin